語彙の習得がカギ!英検のリーディング対策とは?

語彙の習得がカギ!英検のリーディング対策とは?

英語試験には、スコアによる評価をするものと、合格・不合格で判定されるものがありますが、英検®は、数ある英語試験の中でも、スコアによる評価ではなく、合格、不合格で判定されることで知られています。英検®に合格していると、中学、高校、高専、短大、大学の入試の際に、加点や高得点採用、出願資格など、優遇措置が取られる場合があります。今回は英検®のリーディング試験と対策について解説します。

英検®の概要

英検®とは、公益財団法人日本英語検定協会が運営する資格型の英語検定試験のことで、実用英語技能検定と言います。上位級から順番に、1級、準1級、2級、準2級、3級、4級、5級(初級)と合計7つのグレードに分けられています。1級から3級までは「聞く・読む・書く・話す」の4つの技能を測定します。一次試験ではリスニング・リーディング・ライティングの3技能、二次試験(面接等)でスピーキングの技能を測り、一次試験・二次試験の両方で基準に到達すると合格になります。4級と5級に関しては「リスニング・リーディング」の2技能が問われ、リスニングとリーディングで合否判定となりますが、合格者のみが自宅でチャレンジできるスピーキングテストが別途用意されています。なお、試験は1年に3回あり、1月・6月・10月頃に行われます。

英検®の合否はどう決まるの?

2016年度から、英検®は、合否に加えて、国際標準規格CEFR(Common European Framework of Reference for Languages)に対応した、英検®CSE(Common Scale for English)スコアでも評価されるようになりました。英検CSEスコアは、満点を設定してスコア化し、合格ラインからどれくらい上回っているか、あるいは下回っているか、受験時の能力を把握することができます。

CEFRと英検®各級の満点CSEスコアと合格ライン

満点CSEスコア 合格ライン
英検® CEFR 合計 リーディング ライティング リスニング スピーキング 一次試験 二次試験
(スピーキング)
合計
1級 C1 3,400 850 850 850 850 2,028 602 2,630
準1級 B2 3,000 750 750 750 750 1,792 512 2,304
2級 B1 2,600 650 650 650 650 1,520 460 1,980
準2級 A2 2,400 600 600 600 600 1,322 406 1,728
3級 A1~A2 2,200 550 550 550 550 1,103 535 1,456
4級 A1 1,000 500 500 500 622 324 622
5級 A1 850 425 425 425 429 266 429

4級と5級はリーディングとリスニングの一次試験のみで合否が判定され、別途、合否判定には影響しないスピーキングテストが実施されます。

1級、準1級、2級、準2級、3級は、一次試験に合格した方のみに、二次試験(スピーキングテスト)の受験資格が与えられます。なお、二次試験の受験票は合否結果に同封されて届きます。

英検®CSEスコアは、受験した試験が別の時に受験した試験と同じ正解数であっても、スコアが異なります。これは、各試験の全回答案採点後、受験者の応答パターンを形式や難易度が異なるテスト結果を比較するための理論を用いた統計的手法により、スコアが算出されるからです。よって、自身でスコアを算出することはできません。

英検®の試験内容と制限時間は?

英検®各級の試験内容と制限時間は以下の通りです。

前にも述べたように、4級と5級は、リーディングとリスニングで合否が判定され、スピーキングは、合否に影響する二次試験ではなく、自分の英語力を測ることができるスピーキングテストになります。1級から3級までは、一次試験で、リーディング、ライティング、リスニングの英語力を評価します。読んで解答する「リーディング」と自分の考えを書く「ライティング」は、2技能合わせた制限時間の筆記試験になります。リーディングとライティングの時間配分を考慮して試験に臨みましょう。

一次試験 二次試験
英検® 試験内容 制限時間 試験内容 制限時間
1級 リーディング 100分 スピーキング 約10分
ライティング
リスニング 約35分
準1級 リーディング 90分 スピーキング 約8分
ライティング
リスニング 約30分
2級 リーディング 85分 スピーキング 約7分
ライティング
リスニング 約25分
準2級 リーディング 75分 スピーキング 約6分
ライティング
リスニング 約25分
3級 リーディング 50分 スピーキング 約5分
ライティング
リスニング 約25分
4級 リーディング 35分 スピーキング 約4分
リスニング 約30分
5級 リーディング 25分 スピーキング 約3分
リスニング 約20分

英検®のリーディング試験を詳しく教えて

英検®5級のリーディング試験概要

英検® 形式/課題 内容詳細 問題数 問題文の種類 解答形式
5級 短文の語句空所補充 文脈に合う適切な語句を補う 15 短文/会話文 4肢選択
会話文の文空所補充 会話文の空所に適切な文や語句を補う 5 会話文
日本語付き短文の語句整序 日本文を読みその意味に合うように与えられた語句を並び替える 5 短文

過去問題を見てみよう

短文の語句空所補充問題 (7)
In summer, I often go swimming in the (          ) at school.
1 classroom          2 door     3 pool     4 cafeteria

会話文の文空所補充問題 (20)
Boy :  Hi, I’m Ken. I’m a new student.
Girl : (             ) Welcome to our school.
1 It’s fine.    2 Nice to meet you.   3 You can go.   4 I enjoy it.

日本語付き短文の語句整序問題 (22)
私達は私の家でポップコーンを作れます。
( ① some  popcorn ② we  ③ make ④ can ) at  my  house.

出典:公益財団法人日本英語検定協会「2020年度 第2回 問題冊子 英検®5級

解答は以下の通りです。
(7) 3
(20) 2
(22) ②④③①

英検®4級のリーディング試験概要

英検® 形式/課題 内容詳細 問題数 問題文の種類 解答形式
4級 短文の語句空所補充 文脈に合う適切な語句を補う 15 短文/会話文 4肢選択
会話文の文空所補充 会話文の空所に適切な文や語句を補う 5 会話文
日本語付き短文の語句整序 日本文を読みその意味に合うように与えられた語句を並び替える 5 短文
長文の内容一致選択 パッセージの内容に関する質問に答える 10 掲示・案内/Eメール(手紙文)/説明文

過去問題を見てみよう

短文の語句空所補充問題 (9)  
My father eats breakfast early (          ) the morning.
1 from   2 by       3 in         4 of

会話文の文空所補充問題 (17) 
Son : What are you doing, Mom?
Mother :  It’s  your  father’s  birthday, so (                 )
1 I don’t have one. 2 I’m making a cake.  3 let’s go home.  4 it’s over there.

日本語付き短文の語句整序問題 (23)       
トムは昨年,フランス語の勉強を始めました。
Tom ( ① to     ② began      ③ last   ④ French ⑤ study ) year.

長文の内容一致選択問題
Ken’s      Plane      Ride
Ken loves planes. In the future, he wants to be a pilot. Last summer, he took a trip to Hawaii with his parents. He was excited to ride in a plane for the first time.
Ken’s father drove Ken and his mother to the airport. They got there early, so they went to the observation deck* first. Ken watched planes for one hour, and he took a lot of photos, too.
After that, Ken and his parents walked to their boarding gate.* They had to wait there for 20 minutes before they  could  get  on  the  plane. Ken was happy because his seat on the plane was next to a window.
Ken and his parents were on the plane for seven hours.  When they arrived in Hawaii, Ken said to his mother, “That was so exciting! I enjoyed looking out the window very much. I want to sit by the window on the way home, too.”

*observation deck: 展望デッキ
*boarding gate: 搭乗口

(31) What does Ken want to do in the future?
1 Become a teacher.
2 Become a pilot.
3 Make planes.
4 Buy his father a car.

出典:公益財団法人日本英語検定協会「2020年度 第2回 問題冊子 英検®4級

解答は以下の通りです。
(9) 3
(17) 2
(23) ②①⑤④③
(31) 2

英検®3級のリーディング試験概要

英検® 形式/課題 内容詳細 問題数 問題文の種類 解答形式
3級 短文の語句空所補充 文脈に合う適切な語句を補う 15 短文/会話文 4肢選択
会話文の文空所補充 会話文の空所に適切な文や語句を補う 5 会話文
長文の内容一致選択 パッセージの内容に関する質問に答える 10 掲示・案内/Eメール(手紙文)/説明文

過去問題を見てみよう

短文の語句空所補充問題 (6)
I left the pizza in the oven too long and (          ) it.
1 believed  2 borrowed  3 burned  4 belonged

会話文の文空所補充問題 (19)
Man : That was a delicious dinner.
Woman : Really?   (            ) It was too spicy for me.
1 I can eat yours.  2 I didn’t think so.  3 I’ll do it.  4 I used chopsticks.

長文の内容一致選択問題
Huntly International Food Festival
Come and enjoy food from around the world. There will be interesting dishes from Asia, Europe, Africa, and South America.

Date: Saturday, September 19
Time: 11 a.m. to 8 p.m.
Place: Carlton Park (five minutes from Westland Train Station)
If the weather is bad, it’ll be held at Westland University.

You can enter the festival for free, and each dish will cost between three and
five dollars.

One of Huntly’s most popular chefs, Vanessa Wong, is going to teach some Chinese cooking classes at the festival. To take part in one of these lessons, please sign up in the blue tent before noon.

www.huntlyiff.com

(21) What will happen if the weather isn’t good on September 19?
1 Everyone will get a three­dollar discount.
2 Everyone will get one free dish.
3 The festival will be held at a train station.
4 The festival will be held at a university.

出典:公益財団法人日本英語検定協会「2020年度 第2回 問題冊子 英検®3級

解答は以下の通りです。
(6) 3
(19) 2
(21) 4

英検® 形式/課題 内容詳細 問題数 問題文の種類 解答形式
準2級 短文の語句空所補充 文脈に合う適切な語句を補う 20 短文/会話文 4肢選択
会話文の文空所補充 会話文の空所に適切な文や語句を補う 5 会話文
長文の語句空所補充 パッセージの空所に文脈に合う適切な語句を補う 5 物語文/説明文
長文の内容一致選択 パッセージの内容に関する質問に答える 7 Eメール/説明文

過去問題を見てみよう

短文の語句空所補充問題 (3)
After Thomas hurt his knee in a skiing accident, his doctor told him to (       ) playing sports for at least two months.
1 protect   2 admit  3 avoid  4 master
会話文の文空所補充問題 (22)
A : I want to go to see a musical sometime soon. (         22           ), Tom?
B : I’m going camping at Greenville Lake.
A : Really? So, you’ll be busy on both days.
B : Yeah, but I’ll be free on Tuesday after work. Let’s go then.
1 Are you free on Monday    2 What will you do this weekend
3 How is work going            4 Where are you going on Tuesday

長文の語句空所補充問題
Local Activities
Every year, Sarah’s town holds a big volunteer event. People of all ages living in the town get together to clean up local parks.  This year, Sarah (    26     ). Early on Saturday morning, Sarah gathered at Memorial Park with     the other volunteers. She was on a team with five other people. The team’s job was to paint the fence around the park.
While she was talking to one of the volunteers, she found out that her town holds many exciting events. For example, they have summer concerts in the park and a fashion show in the winter. She also learned that her town has a basketball team, and there are games every month at a local gym.   Sarah (   27    )  these  activities.  Now, she is planning on participating in more activities in her community.

(26)
1 joined the event          2 played with her friends
3 visited the town hall      4 checked the weather

(27)
1 saw news about           2 enjoyed planning
3 became interested in     4 paid money for

長文の内容一致選択問題
From: Ann Shutler <a-shutler9@pmail.com>
To: Pete Shutler <pshutler135@umail.edu>
Date: October 3
Subject: Winter break

Hi Pete,
How are you doing at college? Everyone was happy to see you when you came home last month. Also, your sister said thank you for helping her with her science project while you were home. Her project won first place at the school science fair today! Also, she’s very excited that you’re going to come home for three weeks for winter break.
Anyway, I wanted to tell you about some family plans for Christmas. This year Grandma and Grandpa will be staying at our house for the holiday. They usually go to Aunt Paula’s place, but this year she’ll be visiting her son in Hawaii. Grandma and Grandpa will be staying in your room for a few days, so you’ll have to share a room with your sister.
For New Year’s Eve, we’ll be having a big party at our house. Everyone is invited, but Grandma and Grandpa will be going home to Ohio on December 27. That’s because Grandma has a doctor’s appointment on December 28. Grandpa is a little sad, but he says he can’t stay awake until midnight anyway! Good luck on your college exams, and we hope to hear from you soon.
Love, Mom

(31) What did Pete do last month?
1 He visited his sister at school for a few weeks.
2 He helped his sister with a project for school.
3 He took a three­week break from school.
4 He won a prize for his science project.

出典:公益財団法人日本英語検定協会「2020年度 第2回 問題冊子 英検®準2級

解答は以下の通りです。
(3) 3
(22) 2
(26) 1
(27) 2
(31) 2

英検®2級のリーディング試験概要

英検® 形式/課題 内容詳細 問題数 問題文の種類 解答形式
2級 短文の語句空所補充 文脈に合う適切な語句を補う 20 短文/会話文 4肢選択
長文の語句空所補充 パッセージの空所に文脈に合う適切な語句を補う 6 説明文
長文の内容一致選択 パッセージの内容に関する質問に答える 12 Eメール/説明文

過去問題を見てみよう

短文の語句空所補充問題 (1)
You must understand the basic (                  ) of science in order to know why water becomes steam when it boils.
1 principles            2 substitutes         3 decades             4 critics

長文の語句空所補充問題

A Fresh Idea
The Northwest Territories of Canada are known for their long, cold winters and short summers. In such conditions, growing fruits and vegetables is very difficult. The native Inuit people in those areas traditionally survived by fishing, hunting seals, and gathering small plants to eat. Nowadays, global warming has greatly   limited   their   traditional   food   supply.   Most   Inuit   communities   now  (     21      ) instead. However, these communities are far from farms and can only be accessed by airplane. This results in high shipping costs, which makes the food in stores very expensive.
Due to these challenges, many Inuit (    22    ) that they need for a healthy diet. Many grocery stores offer mostly foods that do not go bad easily, which means people do not have access to a wide range of fresh fruits and vegetables.  One solution is to build greenhouses, which are made of glass or plastic, to provide a warm indoor area where plants can grow. The town of Inuvik is one of the few communities in this region to have a greenhouse.
Since it was created about 20 years ago, the greenhouse has helped the Inuvik natives to deal with their shortage of fresh food. Nevertheless, there have been difficulties with starting new greenhouse in other Inuit communities. (    23   ),  the  attitude  of  the  local  people  towards  these  greenhouses  is  not   always good. Because gardening has never been a part of Inuit culture, some communities have no interest in greenhouses. Because of this, more need to be done to help educate Inuit towns about the benefits of greenhouses.

(21)
1 receive support from the government
2 rely on modern grocery stores
3 make donations to their families
4 recognize the difficulty of farming

(22)
1 understand the nutrition             2 increase the number of crops
3 do not get the variety of food          4 cannot cook the fish

(23)
1 For one thing      2 In contrast
3 Similarly            4 Meanwhile

長文の内容一致選択問題
From: Roger Taylor <r-taylor2@westin.edu>
To: All students <allstudents@westin.edu>
Date: October 11
Subject: Student center dining services

Dear students,
As the general manager of student dining services, I have a few announcements to make. There will be a few changes to our dining services this year, and we want to make sure that everyone understands them. Some of these changes will affect rules in all of the dining areas on campus, so please read this message carefully.
First, there will be some changes at the Westin Student Center. It will open an hour earlier on weekdays, so you will be able to use the lounge area from 7 a.m. Please be aware, however, that restaurants inside the building will keep their current hours. A new café will also be opening in the student center, and they are looking for part-time workers. To apply, please contact Jerry Conwell at 1-555-526-6248.
We will also have a new rule on campus regarding peanuts and other nuts. Since many of our students have allergies, restaurants and cafeterias on campus will not be allowed to serve foods containing them. We ask that students do not bring any foods containing nuts into these areas. If you are not sure about an item, please leave it at home. This is to make sure that all students at the university are safe.
Sincerely, Roger Taylor
Student Dining Services General Manager

(28) What does Roger Taylor say about restaurants in the Westin Student Center?
1 Their numbers are decreasing this year.
2 Their opening hours will not change.
3 They are not hiring new workers.
4 They will open earlier on weekdays.

出典:公益財団法人日本英語検定協会「2020年度 第2回 問題冊子 英検®2級

解答は以下の通りです。

(1) 1
(21) 2
(22) 3
(23) 1
(28) 2

英検®準1級のリーディング試験概要

英検® 形式/課題 内容詳細 問題数 問題文の種類 解答形式
準1級 短文の語句空所補充 文脈に合う適切な語句を補う 25 短文/会話文 4肢選択
長文の語句空所補充 パッセージの空所に文脈に合う適切な語句を補う 6 説明文/評論文など
長文の内容一致選択 パッセージの内容に関する質問に答える 10

過去問題を見てみよう

短文の語句空所補充問題 (5)
When shopping for a used car, it is important to find a (               ) dealer. It is easy for dealers to cheat you if you do not know much about cars.
1   compulsive        2   dependent          3   reputable      4 fertile

長文の語句空所補充問題
Bus­Route Economics
Since 2010, thousands of bus routes across Britain have been eliminated or privatized due to cuts in funding received from the national government. Local governments still have the right to fund the less popular routes themselves, but at the same time, the national government requires them to spend huge amounts on providing free bus passes for seniors and disabled people. For this reason, many rural districts (   26   ).  Although   the   local   governments   realize   these   bus routes are essential for residents to have access to things like jobs and hospitals, these governments have so many other expenses and responsibilities that they are unable to pay for everything.
In contrast, both bus usage and the number of routes have increased in London despite the partial privatization of the bus market. The city maintained its ability to plan all aspects of the bus network, such as routes, frequency, and fares.  This has been (   27   ). The degree of control the city has over the bus system enables it to transfer funds from more profitable bus routes. This allows it to subsidize those which generate less revenue but are important for the disadvantaged people who rely on them.
Claire Haigh, chief executive of an association promoting bus travel, believes bus services are crucial to Britain’s economic health. According to experts, every pound invested in bus services generates eight pounds’ worth of wider benefits to the economy. (   28    ), it seems that local governments must make every  effort to restore and even increase their local bus routes.

(26)
1 have created new laws            2 have volunteered to help
3 are trying a unique solution    4 are in a difficult position

(27)
1 adopted by other cities            2 essential to its success
3 unpopular with local people     4 slowing down reform efforts

(28)
1 Therefore           2 Nonetheless       3 Alternatively       4 Regrettably

長文の内容一致選択問題

Superbugs

A British government study has shown that infections cause by drug­resistant bacteria those that cannot be controlled by antibiotics kill about 700,000 people worldwide annually. By 2050, this number could rise to over 10 million.  “It’s just a fact   of evolution the more antibiotics that are around, the more bacteria has been exposed to antibiotics, the more opportunity they have to acquire these resistances,” explains Sarah Fortune, a professor of immunology and infectious diseases at Harvard T.H.  Chan School of Public Health. Although these drug­resistant bacteria, known as “superbugs,” are found around the world, India is considered to have the biggest problem because the factors that encourage superbugs are extensive and widespread in that country.

One cause is the overuse of antibiotics, which are frequently taken for illnesses that do not require them. Additionally, India’s pharmaceutical industry is releasing alarmingly high levels of antibiotics into the environment because the treatment facilities that process the industry’s wastewater do not effectively remove the drugs.  Antibiotics also enter soil and water via animal waste because livestock are regularly fed the drugs to promote rapid growth and prevent disease. Poor infrastructure means India’s waterways are already polluted with bacteria, which develop resistance when exposed to antibiotics.

Solving the superbug problem is not as easy as simply restricting the availability of antibiotics, however. These medicines are sold without prescriptions in India because

many communities do not have doctors available to prescribe them, and research has shown that lack of access to antibiotics would cause more deaths than infections by superbugs would. Therefore, many people believe minimizing the amount of antibiotics and bacteria in waterways and improving water quality locally are the keys to preventing     the spread of superbugs globally. Indian prime minister Narendra Modi has been campaigning to clean the country’s contaminated Ganges River, and in 2017 India announced a plan to regulate antibiotic waste being released into the environment by drug manufacturers.

(32) What does Sarah Fortune say about “superbugs”?
1 The predicted increase in drug­resistant bacteria will be caused not only by antibiotics but by other drugs as well.
2 With enough exposure, bacteria will naturally become resistant to the antibiotics that are used to target them.
3 The rise of superbugs has resulted in more varieties of antibiotics being made available to patients worldwide.
4 Bacteria only develop resistance to antibiotics if their use is spread across a wide population of patients.

出典:公益財団法人日本英語検定協会「2020年度 第2回 問題冊子 英検®準1級

解答は以下の通りです。
(5) 3
(26) 4
(27) 2
(28) 1
(32) 2

英検®1級のリーディング試験概要

英検® 形式/課題 内容詳細 問題数 問題文の種類 解答形式
1級 短文の語句空所補充 文脈に合う適切な語句を補う 25 短文/会話文 4肢選択
長文の語句空所補充 パッセージの空所に文脈に合う適切な語句を補う 6 説明文/評論文など
長文の内容一致選択 パッセージの内容に関する質問に答える 10

過去問題を見てみよう

短文の語句空所補充問題 (20)
The author’s latest book (                 ) deep into the origins of the industrial revolution. It contains an astonishing amount of research.
1 blurts   2 parries  3 jiggles   4 delves

長文の語句空所補充問題
The Surveillance Economy
Digital technology is often considered the modern equivalent of Gutenberg’s printing press, yet people today seem as blind to the ramifications of the current upheavals in society and economics as those in the 1400s were.  Some consequences are already emerging, though, and one highly concerning aspect of the digital revolution is the tendency of tech companies to (   29   ).  A new style of capitalism is arising wherein the raw material that generates revenues takes the form of behavioral data based on the analysis of billions of actions occurring on free digital services, such as posts on social media sites. The monetization of this digital gold mine begins with data gathering, which is generally conducted without users’ awareness or consent. Algorithms are then employed to analyze the data and generate behavioral predictions about shopping habits, for example, which are eventually traded on new types of digital marketplaces.
This economic model is called “surveillance capitalism,” and the strategies employed by the tech firms involved are often said to be based on the idea that it is more effective to (    30     ). For example, technology firms have been known to scan millions of copyrighted materials and make profits from them. Should a scandal over their unauthorized use of the data threaten to damage their reputation, the firms will attempt to smooth things over with the general public while paying   off any fines with their enormous profits.
Experts such as Harvard University’s Shoshana Zuboff see the attitudes of tech firms toward behavioral data as unreasonable. In Zuboff’s view, they consider data to be (   31    ).  Even in cases in which companies have been explicitly denied permission to use certain data, it is common for them to extract or infer what they want through the use of sophisticated algorithms and other analysis techniques. And it is this same sense of extreme entitlement that, ironically, often leads them to patent the very data extraction and analysis techniques that they utilize. Every product branded as “smart,” “personalized,” or a “digital assistant,” warns Zuboff, has the sinister potential to be used as a tool in the surveillance economy.

(29)
1 merge with other firms     2 overprice their services
3 steal other firms’ technologies         4 profit from people’s ignorance

(30)
1 confuse than to clarify                   2 ignore facts than to deny them
3 ask for forgiveness than permission   4 avoid than confront

(31)
1 a resource free for the taking
2 something that never contains errors
3 an extremely heavy burden
4 less valuable than it once was

長文の内容一致選択問題
The Treaty of Versailles
The Treaty of Versailles officially ended World War I in 1919, after more than four years of bloodshed between the Triple Entente of France, Russia, and Britain, and the Central Powers, made up of Germany and its allies. The actual fighting, however, had ceased with an armistice agreement signed in 1918.  This came about when German leaders recognized that enemy offensives had brought the German military to its knees, leading them to make massive concessions to halt the fighting and prevent an invasion of their borders. Nevertheless, the success of Germany’s wartime propaganda campaign, including reports of fictional victories on the front lines, meant civilians were unaware German forces were being crushed.  When the fighting ended, German chancellor Friedrich Ebert made the deceptive declaration that German troops had returned “unconquered from the field of battle.” Though intended to maintain national pride, this statement contributed significantly to the widespread delusions about the result of the war, and these helped give rise to a betrayal myth known as the “stab in the back.”  According to this notion, since Germany had not been defeated militarily, it must have been betrayed from within. As a result, nationalists were able to blame labor organizations, socialists, and the country’s Jewish population for the seemingly disadvantageous terms the Treaty of Versailles imposed on Germany.
The most infamous section of the treaty was Article 231, commonly known as the “war guilt clause.” It established Germany’s responsibility for its actions as a basis for surrendering territory and making financial reparations. Nationalists, bitter from the German defeat, however, condemned it and claimed the reparation costs demanded by the Triple Entente were so excessive that they impoverished the nation.  When  read  in  context, though, it becomes evident that, rather  than  condemning  Germany  for  the  outbreak of hostilities, Article 231 primarily served to establish that Germany was legally obligated to abide by the demands for reparations laid out in other articles of the treaty,       one of which actually limited Germany’s responsibility mainly to paying for  damage  incurred by civilians. The clause is therefore more accurately viewed as part of a concession to Germany by the victors.
When Adolf Hitler’s Nazi Party took power in the 1930s, it claimed Germany, as a victim of the terms imposed by the Treaty of Versailles, had become an international outcast. Playing on the notion of Article 231 as a war guilt clause, the Nazis fanned the flames of German resentment. Their claim was adopted in many historical narratives and taken as fact by influential individuals, like Britain’s wartime prime minister David Lloyd George, who joined in laying much of the blame for Germany’s renewed postwar militarism on the legacy of the Treaty of Versailles. In fact, this interpretation is still commonly cited as a key cause of World War II.  It can be argued, however, that the Nazis had it entirely backwards. Their illegal rearmament and seizure of territory, which violated the Treaty of Versailles, were the true impetus for Germany’s exclusion from the international community. Perhaps it is time to relegate Article 231’s label as the “war guilt clause” to simply a footnote of history.
(37) What was one effect of the Nazis’ interpretation of the Treaty of Versailles?
1 By arguing that the treaty was intended to encourage Germany to expand its military and increase its territory, the Nazis were able to gain more power.
2 Partially admitting that Germany was guilty of starting the war helped the Nazis to improve their image in the international community.
3 Causing people to ignore Article 231 and focus on other parts of the treaty helped the Nazis negotiate the return of territory that had been lost in the war.
4 Though the treaty came to be blamed for Germany’s problems, it was really   the Nazis themselves who were causing them.

出典:公益財団法人日本英語検定協会「2020年度 第2回 問題冊子 英検®1級

解答は以下の通りです。
(20) 4
(29) 4
(30) 3
(31) 1
(37) 4

3級~1級は、リーディングは、ライティングの時間も含めて筆記試験として制限時間が設定されているため、リーディング試験の時間配分は、3級で30分、2級と準2級で50分、準1級で60分、1級で70分の目安で、解答するようにしましょう。

英検®のリーディング対策とは?

1. 語彙力をつける

英検®のリーディング対策では、英語学習の基本である単語や熟語を理解して、単語量を増やすし、語彙力をつけることが重要になります。
英検®のリーディング試験で各級必要とされる単語数は以下の通りです。

英検® 単語数
1級 10,000~15,000
準1級 7,500
2級 5,100
準2級 3,600
3級 2,100
4級 1,300
5級 600

目安として、中学生が高校入試に必要な単語数は2,000語、高校生が大学受験のために必要な単語数は5,000語、東大や京大のような難関大学の受験になると7,000語が必要といわれています。自分の単語力をチェックするには、チャレンジしようとしている英検®の級の過去問題で確認できます。英検®のリーディング対策で単語や熟語を身につけるには、英検®の過去問題の分析に基づいて、出題される頻度順に効率的に学習が進められる、単語帳などを活用して対策を行うと良いでしょう。

2. 英文をたくさん読む

長文読解の対策としては、英語の本や雑誌、新聞などの英文をたくさん読むことをおすすめします。英文の一語一句の意味を理解する必要はなく、大まかに内容が理解できる程度で大丈夫ですので、とにかくたくさんの英文を読むことが大事です。また、読んだ内容を英語で簡単にまとめて要約する学習も併せて取り入れると、より効果的にリーディング力を上達させることができるでしょう。

3. 過去問を解く

過去の問題を解くことは、自分の語彙力を確認するためだけではなく、学習にも最適です。受験する級のリーディング試験では、前の級で出題される単語や熟語も出るため、前の級の単語と熟語は完璧に覚えておきましょう。また、長文読解の対策として、過去問を解いたあとの復習に音読をすることを取り入れることをおすすめします。黙読ですと、内容を理解できないまま進んでしまう場合がありますが、抑揚や区切りを意識する音読をすることにより、内容の理解が深まり、読むスピードを速める訓練にもなります。

今回は英検®のリーディング試験について、ご紹介しました。やはり、カギとなるのは、単語や熟語の語彙力を身につけることです。加えて、過去問を活用して、実際の試験を想定しながら、目安の時間配分の制限時間内に問題が解ける練習もしておきましょう。

英検®は、公益財団法人 日本英語検定協会の登録商標です。
このコンテンツは、公益財団法人 日本英語検定協会の承認や推奨、その他の検討を受けたものではありません。