- 1 英検®の概要
- 2 英検®の合否はどう決まるの？
- 3 英検®の試験内容と制限時間は？
- 4 英検®のリーディング試験を詳しく教えて
- 5 英検®のリーディング対策とは？
2016年度から、英検®は、合否に加えて、国際標準規格CEFR（Common European Framework of Reference for Languages）に対応した、英検®CSE（Common Scale for English）スコアでも評価されるようになりました。英検CSEスコアは、満点を設定してスコア化し、合格ラインからどれくらい上回っているか、あるいは下回っているか、受験時の能力を把握することができます。
In summer, I often go swimming in the ( ) at school.
1 classroom 2 door 3 pool 4 cafeteria
Boy : Hi, I’m Ken. I’m a new student.
Girl : ( ) Welcome to our school.
1 It’s fine. 2 Nice to meet you. 3 You can go. 4 I enjoy it.
( ① some popcorn ② we ③ make ④ can ) at my house.
出典：公益財団法人日本英語検定協会「2020年度 第2回 問題冊子 英検®5級」
My father eats breakfast early ( ) the morning.
1 from 2 by 3 in 4 of
Son : What are you doing, Mom?
Mother : It’s your father’s birthday, so ( )
1 I don’t have one. 2 I’m making a cake. 3 let’s go home. 4 it’s over there.
Tom ( ① to ② began ③ last ④ French ⑤ study ) year.
Ken’s Plane Ride
Ken loves planes. In the future, he wants to be a pilot. Last summer, he took a trip to Hawaii with his parents. He was excited to ride in a plane for the first time.
Ken’s father drove Ken and his mother to the airport. They got there early, so they went to the observation deck* first. Ken watched planes for one hour, and he took a lot of photos, too.
After that, Ken and his parents walked to their boarding gate.* They had to wait there for 20 minutes before they could get on the plane. Ken was happy because his seat on the plane was next to a window.
Ken and his parents were on the plane for seven hours. When they arrived in Hawaii, Ken said to his mother, “That was so exciting! I enjoyed looking out the window very much. I want to sit by the window on the way home, too.”
*observation deck: 展望デッキ
*boarding gate: 搭乗口
(31) What does Ken want to do in the future?
1 Become a teacher.
2 Become a pilot.
3 Make planes.
4 Buy his father a car.
出典：公益財団法人日本英語検定協会「2020年度 第2回 問題冊子 英検®4級」
I left the pizza in the oven too long and ( ) it.
1 believed 2 borrowed 3 burned 4 belonged
Man : That was a delicious dinner.
Woman : Really? ( ) It was too spicy for me.
1 I can eat yours. 2 I didn’t think so. 3 I’ll do it. 4 I used chopsticks.
Huntly International Food Festival
Come and enjoy food from around the world. There will be interesting dishes from Asia, Europe, Africa, and South America.
Date: Saturday, September 19
Time: 11 a.m. to 8 p.m.
Place: Carlton Park (five minutes from Westland Train Station)
If the weather is bad, it’ll be held at Westland University.
You can enter the festival for free, and each dish will cost between three and
One of Huntly’s most popular chefs, Vanessa Wong, is going to teach some Chinese cooking classes at the festival. To take part in one of these lessons, please sign up in the blue tent before noon.
(21) What will happen if the weather isn’t good on September 19?
1 Everyone will get a threedollar discount.
2 Everyone will get one free dish.
3 The festival will be held at a train station.
4 The festival will be held at a university.
出典：公益財団法人日本英語検定協会「2020年度 第2回 問題冊子 英検®3級」
After Thomas hurt his knee in a skiing accident, his doctor told him to ( ) playing sports for at least two months.
1 protect 2 admit 3 avoid 4 master
A : I want to go to see a musical sometime soon. ( 22 ), Tom?
B : I’m going camping at Greenville Lake.
A : Really? So, you’ll be busy on both days.
B : Yeah, but I’ll be free on Tuesday after work. Let’s go then.
1 Are you free on Monday 2 What will you do this weekend
3 How is work going 4 Where are you going on Tuesday
Every year, Sarah’s town holds a big volunteer event. People of all ages living in the town get together to clean up local parks. This year, Sarah ( 26 ). Early on Saturday morning, Sarah gathered at Memorial Park with the other volunteers. She was on a team with five other people. The team’s job was to paint the fence around the park.
While she was talking to one of the volunteers, she found out that her town holds many exciting events. For example, they have summer concerts in the park and a fashion show in the winter. She also learned that her town has a basketball team, and there are games every month at a local gym. Sarah ( 27 ) these activities. Now, she is planning on participating in more activities in her community.
1 joined the event 2 played with her friends
3 visited the town hall 4 checked the weather
1 saw news about 2 enjoyed planning
3 became interested in 4 paid money for
From: Ann Shutler ＜email@example.com＞
To: Pete Shutler ＜firstname.lastname@example.org＞
Date: October 3
Subject: Winter break
How are you doing at college? Everyone was happy to see you when you came home last month. Also, your sister said thank you for helping her with her science project while you were home. Her project won first place at the school science fair today! Also, she’s very excited that you’re going to come home for three weeks for winter break.
Anyway, I wanted to tell you about some family plans for Christmas. This year Grandma and Grandpa will be staying at our house for the holiday. They usually go to Aunt Paula’s place, but this year she’ll be visiting her son in Hawaii. Grandma and Grandpa will be staying in your room for a few days, so you’ll have to share a room with your sister.
For New Year’s Eve, we’ll be having a big party at our house. Everyone is invited, but Grandma and Grandpa will be going home to Ohio on December 27. That’s because Grandma has a doctor’s appointment on December 28. Grandpa is a little sad, but he says he can’t stay awake until midnight anyway! Good luck on your college exams, and we hope to hear from you soon.
(31) What did Pete do last month?
1 He visited his sister at school for a few weeks.
2 He helped his sister with a project for school.
3 He took a threeweek break from school.
4 He won a prize for his science project.
出典：公益財団法人日本英語検定協会「2020年度 第2回 問題冊子 英検®準2級」
You must understand the basic ( ) of science in order to know why water becomes steam when it boils.
1 principles 2 substitutes 3 decades 4 critics
A Fresh Idea
The Northwest Territories of Canada are known for their long, cold winters and short summers. In such conditions, growing fruits and vegetables is very difficult. The native Inuit people in those areas traditionally survived by fishing, hunting seals, and gathering small plants to eat. Nowadays, global warming has greatly limited their traditional food supply. Most Inuit communities now ( 21 ) instead. However, these communities are far from farms and can only be accessed by airplane. This results in high shipping costs, which makes the food in stores very expensive.
Due to these challenges, many Inuit ( 22 ) that they need for a healthy diet. Many grocery stores offer mostly foods that do not go bad easily, which means people do not have access to a wide range of fresh fruits and vegetables. One solution is to build greenhouses, which are made of glass or plastic, to provide a warm indoor area where plants can grow. The town of Inuvik is one of the few communities in this region to have a greenhouse.
Since it was created about 20 years ago, the greenhouse has helped the Inuvik natives to deal with their shortage of fresh food. Nevertheless, there have been difficulties with starting new greenhouse in other Inuit communities. ( 23 ), the attitude of the local people towards these greenhouses is not always good. Because gardening has never been a part of Inuit culture, some communities have no interest in greenhouses. Because of this, more need to be done to help educate Inuit towns about the benefits of greenhouses.
1 receive support from the government
2 rely on modern grocery stores
3 make donations to their families
4 recognize the difficulty of farming
1 understand the nutrition 2 increase the number of crops
3 do not get the variety of food 4 cannot cook the fish
1 For one thing 2 In contrast
3 Similarly 4 Meanwhile
From: Roger Taylor ＜email@example.com＞
To: All students ＜firstname.lastname@example.org＞
Date: October 11
Subject: Student center dining services
As the general manager of student dining services, I have a few announcements to make. There will be a few changes to our dining services this year, and we want to make sure that everyone understands them. Some of these changes will affect rules in all of the dining areas on campus, so please read this message carefully.
First, there will be some changes at the Westin Student Center. It will open an hour earlier on weekdays, so you will be able to use the lounge area from 7 a.m. Please be aware, however, that restaurants inside the building will keep their current hours. A new café will also be opening in the student center, and they are looking for part-time workers. To apply, please contact Jerry Conwell at 1-555-526-6248.
We will also have a new rule on campus regarding peanuts and other nuts. Since many of our students have allergies, restaurants and cafeterias on campus will not be allowed to serve foods containing them. We ask that students do not bring any foods containing nuts into these areas. If you are not sure about an item, please leave it at home. This is to make sure that all students at the university are safe.
Sincerely, Roger Taylor
Student Dining Services General Manager
(28) What does Roger Taylor say about restaurants in the Westin Student Center?
1 Their numbers are decreasing this year.
2 Their opening hours will not change.
3 They are not hiring new workers.
4 They will open earlier on weekdays.
出典：公益財団法人日本英語検定協会「2020年度 第2回 問題冊子 英検®2級」
When shopping for a used car, it is important to find a ( ) dealer. It is easy for dealers to cheat you if you do not know much about cars.
1 compulsive 2 dependent 3 reputable 4 fertile
Since 2010, thousands of bus routes across Britain have been eliminated or privatized due to cuts in funding received from the national government. Local governments still have the right to fund the less popular routes themselves, but at the same time, the national government requires them to spend huge amounts on providing free bus passes for seniors and disabled people. For this reason, many rural districts ( 26 ). Although the local governments realize these bus routes are essential for residents to have access to things like jobs and hospitals, these governments have so many other expenses and responsibilities that they are unable to pay for everything.
In contrast, both bus usage and the number of routes have increased in London despite the partial privatization of the bus market. The city maintained its ability to plan all aspects of the bus network, such as routes, frequency, and fares. This has been ( 27 ). The degree of control the city has over the bus system enables it to transfer funds from more profitable bus routes. This allows it to subsidize those which generate less revenue but are important for the disadvantaged people who rely on them.
Claire Haigh, chief executive of an association promoting bus travel, believes bus services are crucial to Britain’s economic health. According to experts, every pound invested in bus services generates eight pounds’ worth of wider benefits to the economy. ( 28 ), it seems that local governments must make every effort to restore and even increase their local bus routes.
1 have created new laws 2 have volunteered to help
3 are trying a unique solution 4 are in a difficult position
1 adopted by other cities 2 essential to its success
3 unpopular with local people 4 slowing down reform efforts
1 Therefore 2 Nonetheless 3 Alternatively 4 Regrettably
A British government study has shown that infections cause by drugresistant bacteria those that cannot be controlled by antibiotics kill about 700,000 people worldwide annually. By 2050, this number could rise to over 10 million. “It’s just a fact of evolution the more antibiotics that are around, the more bacteria has been exposed to antibiotics, the more opportunity they have to acquire these resistances,” explains Sarah Fortune, a professor of immunology and infectious diseases at Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. Although these drugresistant bacteria, known as “superbugs,” are found around the world, India is considered to have the biggest problem because the factors that encourage superbugs are extensive and widespread in that country.
One cause is the overuse of antibiotics, which are frequently taken for illnesses that do not require them. Additionally, India’s pharmaceutical industry is releasing alarmingly high levels of antibiotics into the environment because the treatment facilities that process the industry’s wastewater do not effectively remove the drugs. Antibiotics also enter soil and water via animal waste because livestock are regularly fed the drugs to promote rapid growth and prevent disease. Poor infrastructure means India’s waterways are already polluted with bacteria, which develop resistance when exposed to antibiotics.
Solving the superbug problem is not as easy as simply restricting the availability of antibiotics, however. These medicines are sold without prescriptions in India because
many communities do not have doctors available to prescribe them, and research has shown that lack of access to antibiotics would cause more deaths than infections by superbugs would. Therefore, many people believe minimizing the amount of antibiotics and bacteria in waterways and improving water quality locally are the keys to preventing the spread of superbugs globally. Indian prime minister Narendra Modi has been campaigning to clean the country’s contaminated Ganges River, and in 2017 India announced a plan to regulate antibiotic waste being released into the environment by drug manufacturers.
(32) What does Sarah Fortune say about “superbugs”?
1 The predicted increase in drugresistant bacteria will be caused not only by antibiotics but by other drugs as well.
2 With enough exposure, bacteria will naturally become resistant to the antibiotics that are used to target them.
3 The rise of superbugs has resulted in more varieties of antibiotics being made available to patients worldwide.
4 Bacteria only develop resistance to antibiotics if their use is spread across a wide population of patients.
出典：公益財団法人日本英語検定協会「2020年度 第2回 問題冊子 英検®準1級」
The author’s latest book ( ) deep into the origins of the industrial revolution. It contains an astonishing amount of research.
1 blurts 2 parries 3 jiggles 4 delves
The Surveillance Economy
Digital technology is often considered the modern equivalent of Gutenberg’s printing press, yet people today seem as blind to the ramifications of the current upheavals in society and economics as those in the 1400s were. Some consequences are already emerging, though, and one highly concerning aspect of the digital revolution is the tendency of tech companies to ( 29 ). A new style of capitalism is arising wherein the raw material that generates revenues takes the form of behavioral data based on the analysis of billions of actions occurring on free digital services, such as posts on social media sites. The monetization of this digital gold mine begins with data gathering, which is generally conducted without users’ awareness or consent. Algorithms are then employed to analyze the data and generate behavioral predictions about shopping habits, for example, which are eventually traded on new types of digital marketplaces.
This economic model is called “surveillance capitalism,” and the strategies employed by the tech firms involved are often said to be based on the idea that it is more effective to ( 30 ). For example, technology firms have been known to scan millions of copyrighted materials and make profits from them. Should a scandal over their unauthorized use of the data threaten to damage their reputation, the firms will attempt to smooth things over with the general public while paying off any fines with their enormous profits.
Experts such as Harvard University’s Shoshana Zuboff see the attitudes of tech firms toward behavioral data as unreasonable. In Zuboff’s view, they consider data to be ( 31 ). Even in cases in which companies have been explicitly denied permission to use certain data, it is common for them to extract or infer what they want through the use of sophisticated algorithms and other analysis techniques. And it is this same sense of extreme entitlement that, ironically, often leads them to patent the very data extraction and analysis techniques that they utilize. Every product branded as “smart,” “personalized,” or a “digital assistant,” warns Zuboff, has the sinister potential to be used as a tool in the surveillance economy.
1 merge with other firms 2 overprice their services
3 steal other firms’ technologies 4 profit from people’s ignorance
1 confuse than to clarify 2 ignore facts than to deny them
3 ask for forgiveness than permission 4 avoid than confront
1 a resource free for the taking
2 something that never contains errors
3 an extremely heavy burden
4 less valuable than it once was
The Treaty of Versailles
The Treaty of Versailles officially ended World War I in 1919, after more than four years of bloodshed between the Triple Entente of France, Russia, and Britain, and the Central Powers, made up of Germany and its allies. The actual fighting, however, had ceased with an armistice agreement signed in 1918. This came about when German leaders recognized that enemy offensives had brought the German military to its knees, leading them to make massive concessions to halt the fighting and prevent an invasion of their borders. Nevertheless, the success of Germany’s wartime propaganda campaign, including reports of fictional victories on the front lines, meant civilians were unaware German forces were being crushed. When the fighting ended, German chancellor Friedrich Ebert made the deceptive declaration that German troops had returned “unconquered from the field of battle.” Though intended to maintain national pride, this statement contributed significantly to the widespread delusions about the result of the war, and these helped give rise to a betrayal myth known as the “stab in the back.” According to this notion, since Germany had not been defeated militarily, it must have been betrayed from within. As a result, nationalists were able to blame labor organizations, socialists, and the country’s Jewish population for the seemingly disadvantageous terms the Treaty of Versailles imposed on Germany.
The most infamous section of the treaty was Article 231, commonly known as the “war guilt clause.” It established Germany’s responsibility for its actions as a basis for surrendering territory and making financial reparations. Nationalists, bitter from the German defeat, however, condemned it and claimed the reparation costs demanded by the Triple Entente were so excessive that they impoverished the nation. When read in context, though, it becomes evident that, rather than condemning Germany for the outbreak of hostilities, Article 231 primarily served to establish that Germany was legally obligated to abide by the demands for reparations laid out in other articles of the treaty, one of which actually limited Germany’s responsibility mainly to paying for damage incurred by civilians. The clause is therefore more accurately viewed as part of a concession to Germany by the victors.
When Adolf Hitler’s Nazi Party took power in the 1930s, it claimed Germany, as a victim of the terms imposed by the Treaty of Versailles, had become an international outcast. Playing on the notion of Article 231 as a war guilt clause, the Nazis fanned the flames of German resentment. Their claim was adopted in many historical narratives and taken as fact by influential individuals, like Britain’s wartime prime minister David Lloyd George, who joined in laying much of the blame for Germany’s renewed postwar militarism on the legacy of the Treaty of Versailles. In fact, this interpretation is still commonly cited as a key cause of World War II. It can be argued, however, that the Nazis had it entirely backwards. Their illegal rearmament and seizure of territory, which violated the Treaty of Versailles, were the true impetus for Germany’s exclusion from the international community. Perhaps it is time to relegate Article 231’s label as the “war guilt clause” to simply a footnote of history.
(37) What was one effect of the Nazis’ interpretation of the Treaty of Versailles?
1 By arguing that the treaty was intended to encourage Germany to expand its military and increase its territory, the Nazis were able to gain more power.
2 Partially admitting that Germany was guilty of starting the war helped the Nazis to improve their image in the international community.
3 Causing people to ignore Article 231 and focus on other parts of the treaty helped the Nazis negotiate the return of territory that had been lost in the war.
4 Though the treaty came to be blamed for Germany’s problems, it was really the Nazis themselves who were causing them.
出典：公益財団法人日本英語検定協会「2020年度 第2回 問題冊子 英検®1級」